The Carlsbad cavern is one of the world's deepest underground chambers, it's located in the "Sierra de Guadalupe", southeast of New Mexico in the United States. The cave has a depth of 250 meters.
The National Park of Carlsbad Caverns was created to protect the cave. In December of 1995, UNESCO declared it heritage of mankind and approximately two-thirds of the park were declared savage are to avoid any change on the habitat.
The formation of stalactites and stalagmites started more than 500 thousand years ago. It were created little by little, drop by drop during an epoch in which the weather was very cold and wet.
The creation of each formation was dependent of the water filtration through the limestone. When each drop was falling, it was absorbing carbon dioxide from air and ground, creating a kind of acid rain. During its filtration through the rock, acidity was dissolving the limestone, absorbing the drop a little quantity.
Carbon monoxide was evaporating in the air of the cave and the drop was not capable of continuing maintaining dissolved the limestone, so this mineral was being deposited in little crystals. After billions and billions of drops, different formations were created.
In places where the drops were attached to the ceiling some stalactites appeared while in those areas falling rapidly to the ground colossal stalagmites and other times, entire columns from the two.
Near the principal cave (Carlsbad) there are more than 100 smaller cavers. Cueva Lechugilla is remarkable, with 196 km of length and then the fifth longest known cave of the world.