Our eye perceives a considerable portion of the spectrum, both luminosity value and color. It's no secret that some other species have an eye that outperforms the human vision in several aspects, if not all. It's in evident dependency of the properties of cell receptors and their number.
The human eye like other vertebrates has cones, specialized cells that receive the light. They come in three versions: for blue, red and green light like the usual screens (pixels) that you could see on the market. RGB is a standard in so many areas, but it was already millions of years ago.
When the environment goes dark, there are other cells for those conditions called rods. These cells have a saturation threshold in which they can't perceive colors.
The human eye includes approximately 6.5 million cones and 120 million rods in the retina. No one can know for certain but probably the design of the human face was responsible for our limitations since the white space may be more populated. This is a bit naive if you account with the cone density of other species like the hawk that multiplies by maybe 5 each square millimeter. Or that extra cone for UV perception like most birds.
Well, this is the living proof that evolution doesn't go as we would like being a civilization with a status of technological achievement.