Knowing about the main group of tastes that the tongue can recognize, it would be easier to achieve success in cooking or in any other process where the user plans to create a mixture. We could say that there are five main groups of taste: sweet, salted, acid, spicy and bitter.
Nature uses them with the usual perfection, and it's the best example of a successful experience —timing and texture cannot be forgotten— when the variety is well selected and grown. Practice also says that sometimes is a matter of adding degrees of each group in the "the big five" to create a fuller perception or in other words more quantity of electric signals traveling to the brain.
The problem seems to know methods to equilibrate the right proportion of each. Anything in excessive quantities ruins the mixture, but also any lack is sometimes discovered problematic as well. You could add pepper, oscillating to bitter and hot and not to acid (perhaps a bit), salted or sweet and if the proportion is not enough, the brain almost doesn't perceive it. The key is even if it looks lost, of course it's there adding nuances to the overall perception activating those particular sensors.
Any culture has been developing their own mixtures of tastes as an art form after finding them particularly adequate. The explanation of each individual technique for gaining control and achieving the desired combination goes far and still further. However maybe the most straightforward methodology starts with the identification of tastes in groups. For instance if the user knows what spice tends to sweet, it would be a right option when the idea is to balance the taste toward this area.